Chapter 1: Dani s’ Introduction to Harappan Ciphers
Ahmad Hasan Dani , Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Sony
Section 1.1: Sample Draft
Section2.3:Pre- Harappan Culture.
Section2.6: Confirmation of Conclusions
Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 3924K)
Chapter1: Dani s’ Introduction to Harappan Ciphers
Dr. Prof. Ahmad Hasan Dani , Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry( Researcher) , Sony
Interview with Dani
Dani (1-9) had confirmed most of our conclusions after a detailed interview(10). Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry( Researcher) and author extends thanks to Farah Dani and all others including Sony(11) . Dani gave detailed account of his life and research work that is on the record hence it is not being repeated. He also gave account of his meeting with Parpola regarding his decipherment (12). We were lost in the ruins of Mohenjodaro available at Mark(13-14) and Omar (1984) IVC sites. Sony is giving the narrative .
The horse hoax was being debated at internet and Author asked the comment from Dani. He said smiling that we are actually Vani from Central Asia and Brahmans hence we support them then he became serious and said that there is no government support and we have limited number of scholars doing this work at their own hence we might complement them , however an agreement is historical evidence.
South Asia is a land of many different cultures and traditions with thousands of sites. The prehistoric scripts , motifs and symbols found during Kot Diji Culture (Khan(1965) are quite different from matured Harappan Scripts 1900-1300 B.C . We are interested in the symbols, signs , pictorials and motifs , logos like 1, 2, and 3 or 33 , some symbols, signs and pictorials used in other civilizations imported from other civilizations during 1500-1300 B.C. period for this decryption.
Table-1 shows a mixture of roughly over 26 symbols with many variants but we are mostly interested for terminal symbols over 11 starting from right to left like Arabicc alphabets. Dani narrated his meeting with Asko Parpola about his effort of decipherment He , B.B. Lal , Russian Professors and many others had rejected this decipherment. One of the questions frequently asked about the Indus script whether it represents any systematic writing of any language at all is not relevant to our decryption. Dani an eminent Pakistani archaeologist , historian and linguistic is expert on 35 languages and dialects. He is authority on Central Asia , South Asia and Harappan Civilization. He is particularly known for archaeological work on Pre-Harappan Culture. We have no disagreement with even with those who agree that the writings of the Harappan Civilization are not a haphazard arrangement of signs and are at variance with one another. Our purpose in this decryption is to carry out frequency analysis of the script of Matured Harappan Civilization in the last stage 1500-1300 B.C. in order to bring out the statistical structure of the cipher-texts.
Many of sites remain hidden under the ruins of Mohenjodaro , Harappa and other sites. It seems to be the culture of another mythology with tradtions of burial , sacrifices and the motif of bull is found that is not a pictorial . The major diety seems to be horned buffalo and buffelo horned yougi . Mehrgarh 7000 B.C site in Gedrosia pertains to the seventh and third millennium B.C. It covers Neolithlic 6500- 4500 B.C. and Chalcolithic4500- 2600 B.C era. We have tablets , tools , figurines of women with heavy jewelry and ceramics of very fine quality . The motif of fish , scorpian , goat and many others including the mythology are different in matured Harappa civilization Some of the scripts , symbols and signs pertaining to Harappan culture 2600-1900 B.C. are different from previous Kot Diji .
We compliment efforts in decipherment of Indus scripts as written language . Anything before 1900 B.C. including the sign-board from Dholavira consisting of 10 large signs, each sign approximately 37cm by 27cm, embedded in semi-precious stones on a wooden board and an innovate addition of many seals and tablets and even horses is wonderful contribution. Our scope in decryption is limited to Matured Harappan Ciphers in 1500-1300 B.C. those were found from upper layers .
The tablet shown above has five symbols. The 1st two from right the inverted boa or jar with logo2 on top and lance below is one symbol. , The 4th boa with logo3 inside is third symbol. Vertical 4 line written in bottom line is 4th symbol at number 5 and last 6th position symbol of comb is 5th symbol called the terminal symbol. We have special problem with this terminal symbol and comb inside the bangle or encircled comb in frequency analysis. We require an ethno-archaeological model for frequency analysis of these symbols. Tablets is a standard form of issuing orders like present day deeds , written orders and other transactions sent as encrypted messages or cipher-texts. It had been common practice in all ancient civilizations to issue the orders as tablets . The amulets and tablets also served as identity documents and trade deals. The direction of the writing of scripts on the amulets , artifices and tablets is from right to left like Arabic ,Persian and Urdu and the local languages Punjabi and Pothwari languages spoken in the oldest culture Samma the Sowan Valley 0.5 million years old culture of stone age . We are not saying that Dravidian in IVC or Naga tribe in Snake Valley Taxila adopted the writing system from the creatures of stone age .
Let us consider a sample of ten tablets in Table -2 . The frequency count of boa left and diamond the right symbol in tablet-1, The left symbol bearer in tablet-2 , the right symbol harrow or saw in tablet -5, the left symbol leveling tool (KRAH) , left symbol comb in bangle in tablet-8 or comb are terminal symbols. We can not carry out any frequency analysis for such a limited data but we would count the symbols using statistical methods and use an ethno-archaeological model to regenerate more data .
The direction of the writing on the seals is from right to left like English language in s1 Table-3 . Stamping the seal gives the writing from left to right as shown above in the tablet discussed above and in table-2. The seal ‘s2’ above when stamped gives the seal impression as ‘t2’.The seals being used in present day environments for signatures is different from the use of Indus seals that pertains to the level of security in modern concept . The amulet as identity document was given to the officials but messengers or speedy system of communication in IVC were given tablets or it may be tablet as stamped seal impression. Let assume a trained bird or racing camel or buffalo or trained tiger or trained crocodile or rhenocerous for swamps and rivers as communication systems. They may be insecure for special purposes as like any of the modern system in cryptology.
The use of impression of a seal as tablet may be compared with a book code as example of a more secure algorithm . The priest on both ends had same seals like the sender and the receiver of the modern code each having a copy of the same book. During encoding, each word in the plaintext is replaced with a code group that indicates where that same word appears in the book. Different occurrences of the same word in the plaintext may be represented by different code groups in the encoded message. With this method, the key is the book itself. Although a person who intercepts a message may guess that a book code is being used, the messages cannot be decoded unless the interceptor can determine what edition of what book is being used. In IVC system special staff priest trained at Priest College Mohenjodaro were present in other states and foreign countries with set of tablets and seals. The orders as seal impression tablet could give the actual tablets to be issued to specific staff to execute the orders.
The security , public policy and prevention of fraud in modern concept as given by Camp (15-21) has to be linked with ancient methods in an ethno-archaeological model. Giving Tablet as actual secret message through any of the communication channels in use during 1500-1300 B.C. was equally insecure like the modern cipher systems that involve transmitting or storing the key with each message. If an unauthorized person can recognize the key, then the next step is to recognize, guess at, or figure out the algorithm. Even without the key, the code breaker can guess the algorithm, and then, by trying all the possible keys in succession, can conceivably recover the plaintext. For example, in Caesar’s alphabetical cryptosystem being discussed in next chapters , the cryptanalyst could simply try each of the 25 possible values of the key. The security of transmissions can therefore be increased by increasing the number of possible keys and by increasing the amount of time it takes to try each key. If the same key is used for multiple messages, the cryptanalyst only has to figure out one key; but by varying the key from one message to another, the cipher clerk has used a different procedure for encoding each one. The use of seal impressions as tablets in IVC ciphers is like using a complicated algorithm that may have a very large number of possible keys. The decryption in modern system if the basic algorithm is known or guessed is made difficult due to the time and effort required to try all possible keys that may take years for finding the plaintext.
IVC cipher remain as unbreakable system during the century like the most secure encryption method known was the one-time pad. The pad is a long list of different randomly chosen keys. Two and only two identical copies of the list of keys exist . The one for the person enciphering the message like the priest issuing the seal impression as tablet and another for whoever is deciphering it like the priest at the other end who knew the message coded as tablet. In OTP, a key is discarded and never used again after being used for one message but in IVC the same seal can be used again because the ciphers are only taught to specific priests and not the users. In OTP the next message will use the next key on the list. If the algorithm is even moderately complicated and the keys are long enough, cryptanalysis is practically impossible. In IVC ciphers the seal impression as tablet may be same but the tablets issued at other end might be different .
The 1st symbol on the right side of seals and the leftmost symbol on the left the last one are called the terminal symbols We have selected after frequency analysis not given here about 11 terminal symbols shown in line-1 of table-3 appearing as 1st symbol on the right side of the seals.
We may call them as boa the 1st on right , diamond or coin , bearer , comb in bangle or encircled comb , comb , lance or spear , harrow or saw , wheel , level tool ( KRAHA) and riding stripe ( RUKAB).
We assumes the senate of priests holding important duties as VPs assisted by AVPs the headmen of tribes and supervisors from technical workforce from respective fields at execution level. . Dani confirms our conclusions for terminal symbols Mahadevan s’ analysis (1982:316) confirms the concept of priest for our ‘boa’ an his ‘jar’ symbol1 but with Sanskrit equivalent.
We do not require any confirmation in mathematical solution of cryptanalysis. The experts in frequency analysis have empirical solutions accepted by all cryptologists and cryptanalysts. The boa Symbol is confirmed as English letter E according to empirical solutions in cryptanalysis. The priest ruler in our analysis is confirmed by Dani our Sanskrit expert and he said that it had nothing to do with Sanskrit. Mahadevan s’ analysis ( 1982:316) confirms the concept of priest but with Sanskrit equivalent
The symbol 2 has largest frequency occurrence after boa symbol and it is termed as symbol of coin or diamond.
Dani confirms coin or diamond symbol 3 an priest VP with financial duties with no Sanskrit equivalent. Mahadevan s’ analysis ( 1982:316) also confirms symbol 3 as officer with priest duties but with Sanskrit equivalent.
The ciphers, crypto systems , and codes in cryptology or Harappan ciphers 1500-1300 B.C. being considered for our cryptanalysis are just like a mule. Every one agrees that a mule cannot generate a daughter. The mule might be forced to adopt a daughter as unique case after brutal attack for training as we call it brutal attack in cryptanalysis for code breaking The concept of spoken language equivalent like Sanskrit or others may be valid for earlier scripts and we have no objection to such adopted daughters.
The seal on the left becomes tablet in the right side but inscription may be different for seal impression hence above is only an example just to show the direction of terminal symbols. We have large variety of bulls like Zebu or bhahmi bull , short horned bull , humped bull and humpless bull beside the unicorns. Many of the animal systems are used as nick names as a fun in our area of the oldest culture of stone age like bull and Ass for girls .I have retrieved old English Teacher books serial 190-191 from my childhood library that had very interesting (22) history.
Nixon mentioned in his book The Leaders
Long interview with Dani reflecting the confirmation of conclusions by Dani, B.B. Lal, Russian Professors, Tosi, Durani Mughal, Mark and other scholars is not being discussed. We are mentioning some of the conclusions also confirmed or partially confirmed by Asko Parpola and I. Mahadevan through their published work.
The direction of writing on amulets, tablets, and seal impressions is from right to left like Arabic, Persian and Urdu and reversed on the seals like English. Conclusion is agreed by all scholars
Indus ciphers and codes represent system like logo-syllabic writing. This doesn’t constitute a closed system of single-valued graphemes as the syllabic and alphabetic scripts, which could be cracked as wholes. The conclusion is confirmed by Asko Parpola, Dani , Mark and other scholars
The individual symbols may be interpreted one by one, and some of the ciphers may remain eternal mysteries. The conclusion is confirmed by Asko Parpola, Dani, Mark and other scholars.
The Indus Ciphers were essentially similar to the other pictographic ciphers evolved by priests in China , Egypt and others .Many scholars like Dani , Fairservis , Mark and others confirm the conclusion
The Indus Ciphers are like a mule unable to adopt any of ancient language as daughter hence decipherment based on languages was rejected by scholars like Dani, B.B. Lal, and Russian Profs. and many others
The spoken language of the Indus people was Dravidian confirmed by Asko Parpola, Dani, Mark and other scholars. Our cryptanalysis shows that it not found in Script ciphers. This was the system like Liner A codes but no Linear B codes were required.
Harappan professed different religion in Kot Diji culture era that may be genetically related to the religions of both the ancient West Asia and the later India. The mythology of matured Harappan Civilization is different from any other mythology and mythology in ancient India.
The terminal symbols appearing at the left of the writing on amulets, tablets and seal impression are most important in frequency analysis. The right symbol on the seals is the terminal symbol on seal impressions.
Let me complement Possehl , Tosi (1993), Walter, Fairservis, Shaffer ,), B.B.Lal, Durani(1981), Jacobson, Terome(1986), Kenoyer (1985), Ratnagar(1991) and many others who contributed to Indus Valley research. Iravatham Mahadevan seems to be greater scholar when he sys that he could n’t decipher the scripts inpite of his over 40 yeras research work. Ahmad Hassan Dani , B.B. Lal and Russian professors are the greates who disagreed to excellent research work by Asko Parpola. Being student of topsecret science Cryptology since childhood , I was associated with code and ciphers. After long discussion with Dani about above researchers and scholars and his work with some of them , we came to the claim of decipherment by Jha N and Rajaram (2000) that I thought the broken seal by Mackay showing rear portion of bull being called hoof of a horse. Dani said smiling , " We am actually Vani from Central Asia hence I would like to apprecite the work by Brahamans ". Then added that government funding is very limited and any effort like the effort of Jha N and Rajaram has to be appreciated but we mightn’t agree with decipherment if it is not correct. Then he narrated all the conversation with Parapola and finally he disagreed.
Dried Up River Hakra
Let us run an ethno-archaeological model on the Scripts during 1500-1300B.C. period. We have no comments on any of the efforts of deciphering efforts of IVC scripts as spoken language. IVC existed from Kot D.G era before 2600 B.C. , Harappa 2600-1900 B.C. and matured Harappa 1900-1300 B.C . The direction of shifting from Harappa to Mohenjodaro, and Lothal during 1500-1300 B.C. is assumed . Gedrosia and Kalibangan might have been left due to Aryans but Dholavera, the sites in Cholistan ( Mughal (1997) and Kot D.G. vanished earlier due to heavy floods and climatic changes and the final drying up of the Hakra /Kangra/ Sarasvati in 1900 B.C.
IVC script is found on amulets, tablets and seals. Some of symbols, signs, numerals , pictorials and motif seem to be universal or imported from other civilizations of China , Egypt and in cuneiform texts from Mesopotamia as well as in the ancient Iran. Scholars had been trying to link the scripts to any of the pre-historic languages like Indo-European They provide a reliable basis for this decipherment. The main conclusion is as follows: the Proto-Indian language is the Proto-Indo-Aryan () one. The direction of the writing is right to left like Arabic on amulets and tablets and it may be reversed for seal impressions. Signs depicted on seals and tablets have basically the left-right orientation. It is well to bear in mind that the direction of the reading of a record depends on the context, too. In this work all the texts are transformed so that they have a common direction from left to right. This report contains a number of quasi-bilingual sources that can be the base of the decipherment (Rjabchikov 2006a; 2006b) (1).
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Evolution of Ethno-Archaeological Model
1.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry, Integration of TCP/IP Protocol Suites with Cryptographic Security approved Ph. D. Electrical & Electronics Engg.) In Total Technology thesis at University of Bradford U.K.
2.Nazeer Ahmad , Secure MIS book draft sent to Artic House Norwood
3.Nazeer Ahmad, Secure MIS in Business Communication, B.M.A. Preston University Research Paper in MIS subject.
4.Nazeer Ahmad ,Protection of Radio Tele-printing Circuits, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1987,pp 25-29
5.Nazeer A. Chaudhry ,Protection of Speech and Data Communication Circuits , The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1988,pp 52-56
6.Nazeer Ahmad ,Neo-Communication Security Environments, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1990,pp 25-29
7.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry ,Communication Systems , MS Thesis MUET Jamshoro 1990-1992,
8.N. A. Chaudhry , Protection of Electronics & Electrical Equipment, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 22 , 22-29 December 1994
9.N. A. Chaudhry , Tele-computers and Security Beyond Year 2000, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , January 1995
10.N. A. Chaudhry , Tele-computers and Security Beyond Year 2000, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1994
11.N. A. Chaudhry , Tactical Nuclear Operations : Indian Option for 21st Century, Pakistan Defence Review, Volume 6, 1994, pp 80-92
12.N. A. Chaudhry , Integrated National Defence , Pakistan Army Green Book, 1991, pp343-346
13.N. A. Chaudhry , Safety Equipment for Nuclear Operations , T.S.O. Research Paper , E.M.E. College NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1985
14.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry , Pre- Evolution History Corps of Signals 1847-1947, SRC Publishers Hyderabad, 1992
15.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry, Design and Development of Secrecy Electronics Communication System, M. Phil. ( Electronics Engg. ) thesis at MUET Jamshoro, 1993-1995
16.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry , Electronics Warfare Doctrine Under Hostile Environments , Pakistan Army Green Book, 1991, pp 287-290
17.N. A. Chaudhry , Cryptographic and Computer Security , The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 24 , 19 January 1995
18.N. A. Chaudhry ,Evolution of Codes and Ciphers , The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , 8 February 1995
19.N. A. Chaudhry , Cryptographic Security Systems , The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 20 , 15 December 1994
20.N. A. Chaudhry , Protection of Electronics & Electrical Equipment, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 22 , 22-29 December 1994
21.N. A. Chaudhry , Axiomatic Educational Strategy for 21st Century , Research Paper presented at IEEEP Lahore ,1995 and published in local press
22.Nazeer Ahmad , Quality Education , Pakistan Observer Daily, 18 November 1998
23.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Education System & National Development , The Jung Daily, 6 February 1995
24.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry , A Short History Of Lahore & Its Monuments, 2000, Sang-e-Meel Publisher Lahore
25.Nazeer Ahmad, Legal Settlement of Kashmir Problem , Pakistan Army Journal , U.N. and Kashmir Issue , Pakistan Observer Daily, 15 November 1994
26.Nazeer Chaudhry , Islamic Requirements of Justice System, , Daily Markaz, 22 February1998 Islamabad
27.Nazeer Chaudhry , Islamic System of Saudi Arabia , Daily Markaz, 8 September 1998 Islamabad
28.Nazeer Ahmad , Face Reading : Integration of Forecasting and Prediction Technologies for Solution of Problems , Bazem –i- Alm –o-Fun Islamabad 2000
29.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, 21 September,1998
30.Nazeer Chaudhry, How to Reduce Budget Deficit , Daily Markaz, 3 April,1999, 4 April,1999, 11 April,1999, Islamabad
31.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to Public Problems , The Exclusive Weekly, Islamabad, 26 September 1996
32.Nazeer Chaudhry, Budget and Unemployment , Asas Daily , 20 June 1999
33.Nazeer Ahmad , Time to Shake Hands With India , The Exclusive Weekly, Islamabad, 16 July 1991
34.Nazeer Ahmad , Face Reading : Integration of Forecasting and Prediction Technologies for Solution of Problems , Defense Digest Monthly, October 1992, pp 53-87
35.Nazeer Ahmad, Constitution of Pakistan and Peoples’ rights , 2004
36.Nazeer Ahmad , We can’t Progress Without Science Education, Pakistan Observer Daily, 2 November 1994
37.Nazeer Chaudhry, South Asian Economy and Kashmir , Al Akhbar Daily, 16 October 1999
38.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Peace, Security &Development, Daily Markaz, 17 Agust,1998, Islamabad
39.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Harappa : the cradle of our civilization , Sang-e-Meel Publication,2002
40.N. A. Chaudhry , Modern Technology Impacts of Defence , Pakistan Army Journal , 1994, pp62-74
41.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, June 1999
42.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Multan :glimpses, Sang-e-Meel Publication,2002
43.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development in Pakistan , Friday News Weekly, 6 July 1999
44.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, September 1999
45.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, June 1999
46.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Basanat :a cultural festival of Lahore , Sang-e-Meel Publication,2001
47.Nazir Ahmad , Academic libraries in a developing society ,1984, Sang-e-Meel Publication
48.Nazeer Ahmad , 21st Century Challenges for Our Engineers, Pakistan Observer Daily, 11 December 1994
49.Nazir Ahmad , University library practices in developing countries ,1984, Sang-e-Meel Publication
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From: N.A. Chaudhry : My thanks to A. Times for registration . Decrypted Secrets of Harappan Civilization 19oo-1300 B.C. can be used for peace and security in Asia and end of terrorism.Global trade through IVC ( Indus Valley Civilization) worth $7.5 billions and trading of largest oil & gas reserves worth over $ 15 Trillions from central Asia is being blocked because , presnt Asians are not so civlized as compared with the Senate of tragers of Harappan States : Harappa , Mohenjodaro, Dholavera , Lothal and Gedrosia . Dani said during very long interview with me for approval of conclusions on 1st cryptanalysis model on IVC script. ,"South Asia was termed as golden sparrow and every one got the job at his door step . Grains and water was protected and we find best model of social security and protection of human rights.Many scholars tried the kicking mule ( IVC scripts ) to accept the daughter ( any of ancient language like Dravidian , Brahvi, and many others ) or at least to adopt it. Many scholars including Dani, B. B. Lal , Russian Professors , Steve Farmer and Michael from Harvard University , Fairservis and others who confirm our conclusions that we might stop forcing the mule to accept the given daughter. Sunskrit literature evolved in Ganga valley even ignores events like attack by Alender in Indus Valley but the literature evolved in1300-1000 B.C. era according to new dating was made to mention the dried up river Hakrra/ Kangra or Srawati( Mughal -1997) in 1990B.C. as flowing big river. After extensive travelling and research work and spending in 5 years including 7 day journey on helicopter , I conclude that this was excessive floods over 18 recorded by Mark & Possehl and change of coarse by indus that shifted Harappa culture to 2600-1900 B.C. to matured Harappan civilzation. Kot Diji culture (Khan -1965) 3500-2600B.C. was quite diffent culture with differnt mythology motifs and symbols having burials sacrfices and divine god like others. Matured Harappan civilization is different adopting global cult of sun god and King Priest was not a divine god. We are not including methimatical cryptanalysis and we ware not diagreeing to anything.. Dravidian the sopken language was not required to be in written form. Do we have any of local languages in written scripts. The answer on record is no . The oldest culture of stone age is Suma ( Sownan Valley ) 0.5 -2.5 million yera old along with bone of Peking man 0.5 m , Iwaja in Japan , a city under the sea at Indian Gujrat coast , oldest city near dead sea in Jordan and Mehrgarh in Gedrosia of 8000 B.C. We had history as sing subject in oldest culture of the world till 1960s and we have elders using counting system of 20s till 1970s in Suma. According to the research by General Kungham Aryan had left Suma ( the salt range & Kashmir in 1426 B.C. and it was being ruled by Anavas tribe. Aran started arriving around 2500 B.C. in small grups as cattle grazers but they had evolved sunskrit before 1900 B.C. seening a big flowing river Hakra. Dani, Mughal and others call it a seperate river but we call it previous alignment of Indus. The concept of roads and rivers is different for people like us actually moving the troops and their suppies. Let us consider my claim that global trading route and attacking route in South Asia before Grand Trunk road was rougly 10 km wide on both sides of G.T. road. Any one who disagree is posted as logistic commader. I ask him to move the treasure of Alender 7 tons of god and silver. Eva our VP on control desk give him published data that this treasure required 26000 mules and 5000 camels. One unit is 33 men and you require over dozen units for many purposes . Two camel load is required for one man. Muhammad of Ghazni attack for Somnat had 30000 troops and 2 camels were required for one soldier for water and rations. We requre the grazing grounds for cattle, local labour , water replenshment and replacement for sick animals . We require a herd of cattles for ration. It may requre few months to get the convoy moved after prepration of many months.
The terms Block Cipher and Stream Cipher are borrowed from modern cryptanalysis (1). The methods and maxims of cryptology were reviewed to find the decrypted secrets of Let us take a very simple example of a message to be encrypted 46 words and 252 characters with spaces and 204 without spaces.
“His Excellency The King Priest of Harappa State as Chairman of Senate for Global Trading Coordinator in South Asia is pleased to order the new seal and signatures to be taken as final orders for all priests to be enforced from 1 January 1900 B.C. “
Let me complement Marshal (1931) , Wheeler (1956), Mackay , Magan, Ghosh, Wolley , Ghosh, Roy (1953), Possel , Tosi (1993), Walter, Fairservis, Sfaffer , Vats(1940), B.B.Lal, Durani(1981), Jacobson, Terome(1986), Kenoyer (1985), Khan F.A.(1965), Ratnagar(1991) and many others who contributed to Indus Valley research. Iravatham Mahadevan seems to be greater scholar when he sys that he could n’t decipher the scripts inpite of his over 40 yeras research work. Ahmad Hassan Dani , B.B. Lal and Russian professors are the greates who disagreed to excellent research work by Asko Parpola. Being student of topsecret science Cryptology since childhood , I was associated with code and ciphers. After long discussion with Dani about above researchers and scholars and his work with some of them , we came to the claim of decipherment by Jha N and Rajaram (2000) that I thought the broken seal by Mackay showing rear portion of bull being called hoof of a horse. Dani said smiling , " We am actually Vani from Central Asia hence I would like to apprecite the work by Brahamans ". Then added that government funding is very limited and any effort like the effort of Jha N and Rajaram has to be appreciated but we mightn’t agree with decipherment if it is not correct. Then he narrated all the conversation with Parapola and finally he disagreed
Posted by nazeerchaudhry on 2012-05-13 19:33:59
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